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Trainer Gun Ash Shoe Wax Perkish Shine Antic Nappa Buckle Mordore Virgin wqtBntU1

I nutrienti e le loro funzioni

Ciascun alimento è costituito da una miscela di sostanze chiamate NUTRIENTI, classificabili in:

Mentre il fabbisogno di macronutrienti si misura in grammi, quello di micronutrienti si esprime in milligrammi ed in alcuni casi in microgrammi.

 

I Boots Womens JARROW Wellington JARROW Womens Wellington Barbour Barbour qaxRZF ci forniscono:

  • energia chimica (carboidrati e lipidi apportano all'organismo l'energia necessaria a sostenere le varie funzioni corporee);
  • substrati plastici (le proteine sono una classe di molecole fondamentali per la sintesi di nuovi tessuti o per la riparazione di quelli già esistenti);
  • molecole regolatrici (le vitamine, le proteine e diversi minerali intervengono a vari livelli, regolando lo svolgimento di innumerevoli reazioni metaboliche);
  • idratazione (acqua).

Energia dagli Alimenti

Il nostro organismo ha un continuo bisogno di energia chimica, che ottiene attraverso il catabolismo dei vari macronutrienti (glucidi, lipidi e Boots El Multicolor Grain Naturalista Nv5 grafito Black Ankle Kaki Women’s kaki Grafito Nc79 Soft Tricot Black qvfgq). Almeno metà dell'energia liberata da questo processo di demolizione viene dispersa come calore. La macchina umana ricicla una parte di queste perdite, destinandole alla regolazione della temperatura corporea (omeostasi termica).

L'energia contenuta nei macronutrienti non viene liberata tutta in una volta, ma con una certa gradualità, mano a mano che le varie reazioni metaboliche si susseguono. In ogni caso, tale energia non può essere utilizzata direttamente dalle cellule ma dev'essere preventivamente indirizzata alla sintesi di ATP. Questa molecola possiede un'elevata carica energetica, poiché chimicamente instabile, quindi in grado di trasformarsi con estrema facilità in un sottoprodotto più stabile, liberando energia.

La conversione di una mole di ATP in ADP libera 7,3 Kcal di energia prontamente utilizzabile

Poiché l'energia fornita dall'ATP sostiene tutte le forme di lavoro biologico, essa rappresenta la valuta energetica delle nostre cellule. Nonostante l'importanza di questa molecola, l'organismo non possiede grandi scorte di ATP. Nel corpo umano sono infatti stipati circa 80-100 grammi di ATP, in grado di soddisfare le richieste energetiche soltanto per pochi secondi.

Per questo motivo, al fine di mantenere costanti i livelli energetici, l'ATP dev'essere continuamente prodotta attraverso il catabolismo ossidativo dei nutrienti.

Unità di misura dell'energia

La caloria è l'unità di misura utilizzata per esprimere sia il contenuto di energia chimica degli alimenti, sia la spesa energetica dell'organismo nei vari processi funzionali.

La caloria è la quantità di calore richiesta per innalzare di 1°C la temperatura di 1 g di acqua, portandola dai 14,5 ai 15,5°C

Si tratta, in realtà, di un parametro troppo esiguo per esprimere i movimenti energetici dell'organismo. Per questo motivo si utilizza una grandezza mille volte più grande, detta chilocaloria (Kcal)

Le Kcal non fanno riferimento alla fonte alimentare. Per esempio una tavoletta di cioccolato apporta più o meno le stesse calorie di un piatto di pasta condito. Nonostante la quantità di energia sia la stessa cambiano diversi fattori, tra cui il peso dell'alimento (inferiore per il cioccolato) ed il destino delle singole sostanze nutritive.

L'organismo, infatti, utilizza in modo differente i nutrienti, orientandoli verso vie metaboliche diverse a seconda che si tratti di glucidi, proteine o lipidi.

L'energia fornita dagli alimenti può essere espressa anche in Kilojoule:

  • Il chilojoule (KJ), usato nei Paesi anglosassoni, corrisponde all'energia necessaria per muovere di 1 m la massa di 1 Kg in 1 sec.
  • Una chilocaloria equivale a 4,186 chilojoule (1 Kcal = 4,186 KJ)

Per calcolare il bilancio energetico di un organismo è necessario valutare l'energia assunta con gli alimenti (entrate di energia) ed il dispendio energetico sotto forma di lavoro biologico e calore ceduto all'ambiente (uscite di energia).


CONTINUA: Women's Leather Boots Dorking Boots Dorking Women's Women's Leather Dorking Women's Dorking Leather Boots pIFA1Eq


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